taVNS at 20 Hz Improves Depression-Like Behaviors

Link – Transcutaneous Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation at 20 Hz Improves Depression-Like Behaviors and Down-Regulates the Hyperactivity of HPA Axis in Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress Model Rats. Abstract Transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) has gained growing interest as a non-invasive and non-pharmacologic treatment option in various neurological and psychiatric disorders. Animal experiments and clinical […]

Vagus nerve stimulation for treatment-resistant depression

Link – Vagus nerve stimulation for treatment-resistant depression: is this therapy distinct from other antidepressant treatments? Abstract BACKGROUND: The treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is a very disabling disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the therapeutic activity of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy system in TRD. We summarised the progress […]

Intermittent theta-burst stimulation in depression


Link – Modulation of the prefrontal blood oxygenation response to intermittent theta-burst stimulation in depression: A sham-controlled study with functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Abstract OBJECTIVE: To better understand the neural mechanisms behind the effect of intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS), we investigated how the prefrontal blood oxygenation response measured by changes in oxygenated haemoglobin (oxy-Hb) was modulated […]

Effectiveness of non-invasive neurostimulation in depression

Link – Statistical versus clinical equivalence; the effectiveness of non-invasive neurostimulation in depression. Abstract There is increasing interest in the use of non-invasive neurostimulation in the treatment of depressive disorder. A recent meta-analysis compared different forms of neurostimulation, and concluded that the effectiveness of different forms of this therapy, for example repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation […]

Depression and Cardiovascular Autonomic Control

Link – DEPRESSION AND CARDIOVASCULAR AUTONOMIC CONTROL: A MATTER OF VAGUS AND SEX PARADOX. Abstract Depression is a well-established stress-related risk factor for several diseases, mainly for those with cardiovascular outcomes. The mechanisms that link depression disorders with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) include dysfunctions of the autonomic nervous system. Heart rate variability analysis is a widely-used […]

A frontal-vagal network theory for Major Depressive Disorder

Link – A frontal-vagal network theory for Major Depressive Disorder: Implications for optimizing neuromodulation techniques. Abstract Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by high comorbidity with cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, a combination of high heart rate (HR) and low heart rate variability (HRV) has been frequently reported in depressed patients. The present review […]

Locations for brain stimulation in depressive disorders

Link – Locations for noninvasive brain stimulation in treating depressive disorders: A combination of meta-analysis and resting-state functional connectivity analysis. Abstract OBJECTIVE: Many noninvasive brain stimulation techniques have been applied to treat depressive disorders. However, the target brain region in most noninvasive brain stimulation studies is the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Exploring new stimulation locations may […]

tDCS on sleep quality and depression

Link – The effects of repeated transcranial direct current stimulation on sleep quality and depression symptoms in patients with major depression and insomnia. Abstract IMPORTANCE: Although several strategies using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have been investigated to treat major depressive disorder (MDD), the efficacy of this treatment for patients with MDD who also have […]

Altered directed functional connectivity of the right amygdala in depression

Link – Altered directed functional connectivity of the right amygdala in depression: high-density EEG study. Abstract The cortico-striatal-pallidal-thalamic and limbic circuits are suggested to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of depression. Stimulation of deep brain targets might improve symptoms in treatment-resistant depression. However, a better understanding of connectivity properties of deep brain structures […]

Adjunctive Vagus Stimulation for Treatment-Resistant Depression

Link – Adjunctive Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Treatment-Resistant Depression: a Quantitative Analysis. Abstract Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been increasingly studied in treating treatment-resistant depression (TRD), but the findings have been mixed. This updated meta-analysis was conducted to examine the efficacy and safety of adjunctive VNS for TRD. Controlled studies reporting on the efficacy and […]