Repetitive Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Hastens Isoflurane-Induced Emergence and Recovery and Enhances Memory in Healthy Rats.
BACKGROUND: Attaining a rapid and smooth return to consciousness after general anesthesia is a goal for clinical anesthesiologists. This study aimed to investigate the effects of repeated anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS) on emergence and recovery from isoflurane anesthesia in rats.
METHODS: Four days after surgery for atDCS socket implantation, rats received either sham stimulation or repetitive anodal direct electrical current of 0.2 mA intensity applied to the right motor cortex for 20 minutes/d for 10 consecutive days. Isoflurane potency and emergence and recovery from a 2-hour isoflurane challenge were evaluated 24 hours after the last atDCS session. Cognitive performance on novel object recognition and spontaneous alternation Y-maze tests were measured 48 hours after the last atDCS session. Locomotor activity was assessed via automated counting of electric infrared beam crossings.
RESULTS: Data are expressed as mean ± standard error of mean (SEM). Isoflurane potency was not affected by atDCS (sham: 1.69% ± 0.06%, transcranial direct current stimulation [tDCS]: 1.73% ± 0.11%, mean difference [MD]: 0.045, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.22 to 0.30; P = .72). However, the time to appearance of emergence behavioral marker (eg, return of righting reflex) was hastened in rats receiving atDCS (sham: 486 ± 3131 seconds, tDCS: 330 ± 4545 seconds, MD: 157, 95% CI: 30-284; P = .008). Similarly, time to acknowledgment of adhesive tape (“sticky dot” applied while anesthetized) was also decreased in atDCS-treated rats as compared to sham (sham: 1374 ± 179 seconds, tDCS: 908 ± 151 seconds, MD: 466, 95% CI: 73-858; P = .015), indicating a faster recovery of isoflurane anesthesia. Rats treated with atDCS spent more time exploring the novel object and environment when compared to sham without affecting activity cycles, indicating visual and working memory can be enhanced by atDCS.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our findings suggest that atDCS over cortical areas might hasten recovery from isoflurane anesthesia and could potentially be used as a preventative strategy for disruptions in higher order functions related to sedation/anesthesia.
PMID: 33591114 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Anesth Analg. 2021 Jan 15;:
Authors: Mansouri MT, García PS