Enhancing Classification Performance of fNIRS-BCI by Identifying Cortically Active Channels Using the z-Score Method.
A state-of-the-art brain-computer interface (BCI) system includes brain signal acquisition, noise removal, channel selection, feature extraction, classification, and an application interface. In functional near-infrared spectroscopy-based BCI (fNIRS-BCI) channel selection may enhance classification performance by identifying suitable brain regions that contain brain activity. In this study, the z-score method for channel selection is proposed to improve fNIRS-BCI performance. The proposed method uses cross-correlation to match the similarity between desired and recorded brain activity signals, followed by forming a vector of each channel’s correlation coefficients’ maximum values. After that, the z-score is calculated for each value of that vector. A channel is selected based on a positive z-score value. The proposed method is applied to an open-access dataset containing mental arithmetic (MA) and motor imagery (MI) tasks for twenty-nine subjects. The proposed method is compared with the conventional t-value method and with no channel selected, i.e., using all channels. The z-score method yielded significantly improved (p < 0.0167) classification accuracies of 87.2 ± 7.0%, 88.4 ± 6.2%, and 88.1 ± 6.9% for left motor imagery (LMI) vs. rest, right motor imagery (RMI) vs. rest, and mental arithmetic (MA) vs. rest, respectively. The proposed method is also validated on an open-access database of 17 subjects, containing right-hand finger tapping (RFT), left-hand finger tapping (LFT), and dominant side foot tapping (FT) tasks.The study shows an enhanced performance of the z-score method over the t-value method as an advancement in efforts to improve state-of-the-art fNIRS-BCI systems’ performance.
PMID: 33297516 [PubMed – in process]
Sensors (Basel). 2020 Dec 07;20(23):
Authors: Nazeer H, Naseer N, Mehboob A, Khan MJ, Khan RA, Khan US, Ayaz Y