Altered prefrontal cortex responses in older adult

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fNIRS

Altered prefrontal cortex responses in older adults with subjective memory complaints and dementia during dual-task gait: an fNIRS study.

Abstract
People with cognitive impairments show deficits during physical performances such as gait, in particular during cognitively-challenging conditions (i.e. dual-task gait [DTG]). However it is unclear if people at risk of dementia, such as those with subjective memory complaints (SMC), also display gait and central deficits associated with DTG. In this study, we investigated the effects of single- and dual-task gait (STG and DTG), on left prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation in elderly people with subjective memory complaints (SMC) and Dementia. 58 older adults (aged 65-94 yrs; 26 Healthy; 23 SMC; 9 Dementia) were recruited. Gait spatiotemporal characteristics (i.e. stride velocity and length) were assessed using an instrumented walkway during STG and DTG. Single-channel functional near-infrared spectroscopy over the left PFC was used to measure changes in oxyhaemoglobin (O2 Hb) during gait. Stride velocity and length during STG (all p<0.05) and DTG (all p<0.000) were significantly impaired in people with Dementia compared to Healthy and SMC individuals. No differences were observed between Healthy and SMC. For STG, a greater increase in O2 Hb (p<0.05) was observed in those with Dementia compared to the Healthy and SMC, while no differences were observed between Healthy and SMC. A significant increase and decline in O2 Hb was observed during DTG in the SMC and Dementia groups respectively, compared to Healthy. Our findings indicate an altered pattern of cerebral haemodynamic response of the left PFC in DTG in people with SMC and Dementia, which may suggest that central changes precede functional impairments in people with SMC.

PMID: 32979289 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Eur J Neurosci. 2020 Sep 26;:

Authors: Teo WP, Rantalainen T, Nuzum N, Valente L, Macpherson H

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