Photogrammetry-based stereoscopic optode registration method for functional near-infrared spectroscopy.
SIGNIFICANCE: Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging brain imaging technique due to its small size, low cost, minimum scanning sonic noise, and portability. Unfortunately, because this technique does not provide neuroanatomical information to accompany the functional data, its data interpretation remains a persistent challenge in fNIRS brain imaging applications. The two most popular approaches for fNIRS anatomical registration are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and three-dimensional (3-D) digitization. MRI scanning yields high-precision registration but reduces the cost-effectiveness and accessibility of fNIRS imaging. Alternatively, the low cost and portable 3-D digitizers are affected by magnetic properties of ambient metal objects, including participant clothing, testing equipment, medical implants, and so forth.
AIM: To overcome these obstacles and provide accessible and reliable neuroanatomical registration for fNIRS imaging, we developed and explored a photogrammetry optode registration (POR) method.
APPROACH: The POR method uses a consumer-grade camera to reconstruct a 3-D image of the fNIRS optode-set, including light emitters and detectors, on a participant’s head. This reconstruction process uses a linear-time incremental structure from motion (LTI-SfM) algorithm, based on 100 to 150 digital photos. The POR method then aligns the reconstructed image with an anatomical template of the brain.
RESULTS: To validate this method, we tested 22 adult and 19 child participants using the POR method and MRI imaging. The results comparisons suggest on average 55% and 46% overlap across all data channel measurements registered by the two methods in adult and children, respectively. Importantly, this overlap reached 65% and 60% in only the frontal channels.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that the mismatch in registration was partially due to higher variation in backward optode placement rather than the registration efficacy. Therefore, the photo-based registration method can offer an accessible and reliable approach to neuroanatomical registration of fNIRS as well as other surface-based neuroimaging and neuromodulation methods.
PMID: 32880124 [PubMed – in process]
J Biomed Opt. 2020 Sep;25(9):
Authors: Hu XS, Wagley N, Rioboo AT, DaSilva A, Kovelman I