Localizing the Primary Motor Cortex of the Hand

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Localizing the Primary Motor Cortex of the Hand by the 10-5 and 10-20 Systems for Neurostimulation: An MRI Study.

Background. The primary motor cortex of the hand (M1-Hand) is a target used in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and in transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for the treatment and evaluation of motor neurological diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided neuronavigation locates the M1-Hand with high precision, but at a high cost. Although less accurate, the C3/C4 points of the international 10-20 system (IS 10-20) are routinely used to locate the M1-Hand. The international 10-5 system (IS 10-5) was developed with additional points (C3h/C4h), which could make it more accurate, but has not yet been tested on the location of the M1-Hand. Objective. To analyze and compare the accuracy of C1/C2, C3h/C4h and C3/C4 points in locating the M1-Hand correspondence on the scalp. Methods. The authors comparatively analyzed the distances from points C1/C2, C3h/C4h, and C3/C4 to the correspondence of the M1-Hand on the scalp in 30 MRI head exams. Results. In most cases, the M1-Hand was located between C1-C3h and C2-C4h in the left and right hemispheres of the brain, respectively. The C3h (0.98 ± 0.49 cm) and C4h (0.98 ± 0.51 cm) points presented the shortest distances from the M1-Hand, with a significant difference when compared with C3/C4. The accuracy between C1/C2 and C3h/C4h was not statistically significant. Conclusion. The C3h/C4h and C1/C2 points were more accurate when compared with the C3 and C4 points in locating the M1-Hand correspondence on the scalp.

PMID: 32611200 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Clin EEG Neurosci. 2020 Jul 01;:1550059420934590

Authors: Silva LM, Silva KMS, Lira-Bandeira WG, Costa-Ribeiro AC, Araújo-Neto SA