Modeling radio-frequency energy-induced heating from tES

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Modeling radio-frequency energy-induced heating due to the presence of transcranial electric stimulation setup at 3T.

PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to develop a numerical workflow for simulating temperature increase in a high-resolution human head and torso model positioned in a whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) radio-frequency (RF) coil in the presence of a transcranial electric stimulation (tES) setup.
METHODS: A customized human head and torso model was developed from medical image data. Power deposition and temperature rise (ΔT) were evaluated with the model positioned in a whole-body birdcage RF coil in the presence of a tES setup. Multiphysics modeling at 3T (123.2 MHz) on unstructured meshes was based on RF circuit, 3D electromagnetic, and thermal co-simulations. ΔT was obtained for (1) a set of electrical and thermal properties assigned to the scalp region, (2) a set of electrical properties of the gel used to ensure proper electrical contact between the tES electrodes and the scalp, (3) a set of electrical conductivity values of skin tissue, (4) four gel patch shapes, and (5) three electrode shapes.
RESULTS: Significant dependence of power deposition and ΔT on the skin’s electrical properties and electrode and gel patch geometries was observed. Differences in maximum ΔT (> 100%) and its location were observed when comparing the results from a model using realistic human tissue properties and one with an external container made of acrylic material. The electrical and thermal properties of the phantom container material also significantly (> 250%) impacted the ΔT results.
CONCLUSION: Simulation results predicted that the electrode and gel geometries, skin electrical conductivity, and position of the temperature sensors have a significant impact on the estimated temperature rise. Therefore, these factors must be considered for reliable assessment of ΔT in subjects undergoing an MRI examination in the presence of a tES setup.

PMID: 32462558 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

MAGMA. 2020 May 27;:

Authors: Kozlov M, Horner M, Kainz W, Weiskopf N, Möller HE