Detecting fatigue in car drivers and aircraft pilots by using non-invasive measures: The value of differentiation of sleepiness and mental fatigue.
INTRODUCTION: Fatigue is one of the most crucial factors that contribute to a decrease of the operating performance of aircraft pilots and car drivers and, as such, plays a dangerous role in transport safety. To reduce fatigue-related tragedies and to increase the quality of a healthy life, many studies have focused on exploring effective methods and psychophysiological indicators for detecting and monitoring fatigue. However, those fatigue indicators rose many discrepancies among simulator and field studies, due to the vague conceptualism of fatigue, per se, which hinders the development of fatigue monitoring devices.
METHOD: This paper aims to give psychological insight of the existing non-invasive measures for driver and pilot fatigue by differentiating sleepiness and mental fatigue. Such a study helps to improve research results for a wide range of researchers whose interests lie in the development of in-vehicle fatigue detection devices. First, the nature of fatigue for drivers/pilots is elucidated regarding fatigue types and fatigue responses, which reshapes our understanding of the fatigue issue in the transport industry. Secondly, the widely used objective neurophysiological methods, including electroencephalography (EEG), electrooculography (EOG), and electrocardiography (ECG), physical movement-based methods, vehicle-based methods, fitness-for-duty test as well as subjective methods (self-rating scales) are introduced. On the one hand, considering the difference between mental fatigue and sleepiness effects, the links between the objective and subjective indicators and fatigue are thoroughly investigated and reviewed. On the other hand, to better determine fatigue occurrence, a new combination of measures is recommended, as a single measure is not sufficient to yield a convincing benchmark of fatigue. Finally, since video-based techniques of measuring eye metrics offer a promising and practical method for monitoring operator fatigue, the relationship between fatigue and these eye metrics, that include blink-based, pupil-based, and saccade-based features, are also discussed. To realize a pragmatic fatigue detector for operators in the future, this paper concludes with a discussion on the future directions in terms of methodology of conducting operator fatigue research and fatigue analysis by using eye-related parameters.
PMID: 32199560 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Safety Res. 2020 Feb;72:173-187
Authors: Hu X, Lodewijks G