Spectral sleep electroencephalographic correlates of sleep efficiency

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Spectral sleep electroencephalographic correlates of sleep efficiency, and discrepancies between actigraphy and self-reported measures, in older men.

Discrepancies between actigraphic and self-reported sleep measures are common. Studies of people with insomnia, in whom both sleep disturbances and discrepancy are common, suggest disturbances and discrepancy reflect differences in the sleeping brain’s activity measurable using spectral electroencephalogram (EEG). Disentangling effects of discrepancy and disturbance on sleep EEG could help target research on the consequences and treatments of different sleep phenotypes. We therefore categorized participants in a cohort study including 2,850 men (average age = 76 years, standard deviation = 5.5) into four groups using median splits on actigraphic and self-reported sleep efficiency (SE). We compared spectral power between these groups in 1-Hz bins up to 24 Hz. Compared with the concordant-high SE group: (a) the group with high actigraphic and low self-reported SE had higher spectral power from 11-15 Hz across the night; (b) both groups with low actigraphic SE had higher power across the 15-24 Hz range, predominantly in early cycles, and greater slow frequency power in later cycles. These findings suggest that perceived wakefulness undetected by actigraphy may result from or drive activity corresponding to spindles. We also found, consistent with hyperarousal models, that low SE detectable via actigraphy was related to higher frequency power in the beta range; actigraph-measured inefficiency was also associated with later slow oscillations, potentially representing attempts to dissipate homeostatic drive elevated from earlier hyperarousal. These distinct spectral EEG markers (of low SE measured with actigraphy vs. low perceived SE that is not captured by actigraphy) may have different causes or consequences.

PMID: 32198950 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

J Sleep Res. 2020 Mar 21;:e13033

Authors: Smagula SF, Sofer T, Guo N, Prerau M, Purcell S, Mariani S, Yaffe K, Redline S, Stone KL